Tessco Wireless Journal February March 2014 Page 2 TWJ Feb_March 2014

Product information and performance claims are provided by manufacturers. 2 Product information and performance claims are provided by manufacturers. 2 Product information and performance claims are provided by manufacturers. 2 February / March 2014 It's projected that mobile data usage will outpace wireline data by 2015. I'm sure my daughter is to blame, as she uses 10 times more mobile data than anyone I know. Really, how many "selfies" can you post in a day? Ok, she is only one of the 91 percent of the world's population with a mobile phone, and like 50 percent of all cell phone users, her smartphone is her primary access to the Internet. But she and others like her add up fast. It's why the network infrastructure market is undergoing a transformation, a reinvention, of how our mobile devices access the Internet. The emergence of the HetNet, a hybrid of access technolo- gies including small cells, is slated to offload mobile data traffic from the macrosite network, increasing coverage and capacity of the mobile network. If you recall, 2013 was slated to be the year small cell deployments begin. It turns out that 2013 was the year of evaluation and planning with a couple of the big mobile network operators projecting actual numbers of deployments planned for 2014. Is this small cell thing going to kick off? It is. It's just happening a bit slower than most originally anticipated. Why? There are a lot of challenges and questions yet to be answered. The ratio of small cells to macrocell sites is projected to swell to at least 10:1 to 15:1, with metrocells (cellular hotspots deployed in high-density outdoor metro areas) outnumbering macrosites very quickly. Forecasts are also indicating small cell traffic will surpass macrocell capacity within the next three years, so it's easy to see that the need to ramp quickly and get it right the first time would make anyone take pause. So here we are paused? Hardly. The entire ecosystem is working for answers to the challenges, from small cell radio selection and street furniture consid- erations, to the installation, power and backhaul options. It's been said before is it going to be easy? No. But it is going to be very interesting. Metrocell site acquisition: finding the perfect location for a metrocell is the result of studying and forecasting capacity and coverage data from existing LTE or UMTS networks for both data and voice service to locate hotspots and mapping street-level assets (street furniture such as light poles, utility standards, and traffic lights) for accept- able mounting locations and assessing the availability of power and backhaul options. Throw in an RF analysis for interference and it's not hard to appreciate why things are moving slowly. Now take the power and backhaul require- ments off the table for the time-being and explore what is taking place behind the scenes to secure the perfect site. Chances are the perfect location is owned by some- one else, and securing the site is going to take some negotiation. Access to right -of-way and street furniture will require a legal agreement, followed by an engineer- ing review, followed by receiving permission from local authorities and obtaining approvals from historic or urban aesthetics governing bodies. There have been some interesting and creative solu- tions to the aesthetic objections to metrocell access points. First and somewhat obvious is to simply make the access point, well, really small. This might work for some loca- tions but there is still going to be some objections to the antenna, the mounting hardware, or the exposed cabling. Next best thing would be to conceal the access point in an enclosure. It can be "camouflaged" to blend with the sur- rounding environment. The enclosure approach can also provide environmental protection for equipment and space for backup power options. Next, and what seems to be a very agreeable approach for all, is to conceal the access point within the street furniture itself. Bus stops, kiosks, benches all have been explored and deployed in early tests. Betting on the Small Cell / Metrocell Trifecta? The perfect location should have a usable power source, and fiber to backhaul to the core. But the odds of hit- ting the metrocell "trifecta" (coverage & capacity, power, and backhaul) are slim and will require some creative approaches to overcome the obstacles. Locating and en- gineering power and backhaul requirements during the site acquisition process is critical. Additional agreements or partnerships may be required as well as engineering to make it all work. In fact, the perfect location from a capac- ity and coverage perspective may not be so perfect once the power and backhaul requirements are identified. Power Of course in the process of determining the perfect loca- tion for the small cell, power availability is one of the sur- vey components. Depending on the solution, you will need power for the radio, and backhaul equipment. Either wire- less or wired. Each site will require somewhere between 20-100 watts. Your options include working with the local electrical utility to including access to available power at the installation location or creating an off-the-grid power solution. Streetlights, traffic lights, and signage lighting are all viable power access points and all will be considered; however, the likelihood of having a meter to account for power consumption is unlikely, so working power into the site agreement is a more likely option. Also remember that the power at the exact install location may be controlled by a timer or photocell, as with streetlights and signage, or may not meet the proper grounding requirements or voltage. Several of the market-leading wireless backhaul solutions require a DC power source, but thanks to today's power-efficient radios and green initiatives, our power options are considerable. There are renewable power solu- tions that utilize solar cells with battery reserves; however, most renewable power sources are intermittent by nature, and will most likely require an electrical grid source to maintain seamless operation. The good news is that in some applications, today's solar, battery and charging Capacity & Coverage = Small Cells. By Scott Gregory, TESSCO Technologies Deployment Backhaul Options Copper Cable Fiber Optic Cable Wireless Backhaul: Power Options Line Power Local Power Solar Power Battery Backup PoE Grounding/Protection Installation Options Streetlight Poles Utility Infrastructure Traffic Light Standards Urban Infrastructure Integrated Enclosures Considerations Lighting Fiber Cable Solar Panels Mounting Hardware Surveillance Small Cell Node Wireless Backhaul Nodes - Millimeter Wave - Microwave Enclosures - Batteries - Monitoring - Inverters - Chargers

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